You will get the following:. While the whole descriptive statistics cells are selected go to Format — Cells to change all numbers to have one decimal point. Click OK. All numbers should now have one decimal as follows:. Now we know something about our data. The average student in this sample is The mean is the sum of the observations divided by the total number of observations. It is the most common indicator of central tendency of a variable. For age means the sum of the ages of all students. The excel function for sum is:. The function is:. The average age of The standard error is calculated by dividing the standard deviation of the population or the sample by the square root of the total number of observations.
The SE can be used to roughly define a range of certainty for the mean. Lower bound. Upper bound. Note that the more certainty wider the gap. The median is another measure of central tendency. To get the median you have to order the data from lowest to highest. The median is the number in the middle. If the number of cases is odd the median is the single value, for an even number of cases the median is the average of the two numbers in the middle. The excel function is:. The mode refers to the most frequent, repeated or common number in the data.
By age there are more students 19 years old in the sample than any other group.
Range is a measure of dispersion. The sample variance measures the dispersion of the data from the mean. It is the simple mean of the squared distance from the mean. It is calculated by:. Higher variance means more dispersion from the mean.
The standard deviation is the squared root of the variance. Indicates how close the data is to the mean. The excel formula is:. Skewness measures the asymmetry of the data, when in an otherwise normal curve one of the tails is longer than the other. It is a roughly test for normality in the data by dividing it by the SE.
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If it is positive there is more data on the left side of the curve right skewed, the median and the mode are lower than the mean. A negative value indicates that the mass of the data is concentrated on the right of the curve left tail is longer, left skewed, the median and the mode are higher than the mean. A normal distribution has a skew of 0. Skewness can also be estimated with the following function:. The current view of kurtosis argues that it measures the peak of a distribution.
According to Peter Westfall, that view is not quite correct. High kurtosis may suggest the presence of outliers. Technically speaking, kurtosis focuses more on the tails for the distribution than the peak, so positive kurtosis indicates too few cases in the tails or a tall distribution leptokurtic , negative kurtosis too many cases in the tails or a flat distribution platykurtic.
A normal distribution has a kurtosis of 0 given a correction of —3, otherwise it will have a kurtosis of 3. The excel function for kurtosis is:. Exploring data using pivot tables. To explore the data by groups you can sort the columns for the variables you want for example gender, or major or country, etc. You can also use pivot tables. The pivot wizard will walk you through the process, this is the first window.
In step 2 select the range for the range of all values as in the following picture:. This is where you make the pivot table:. On the right side of the wizard layout you can see the list of all variables in the data. The wizard layout should look like this:. The wizard layout should look like this.
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In a new worksheet you will see the following the pivot table window was moved to save some space. This is a crosstabulation between gender and major. Each cell represents the average SAT score for a student according to gender and major. For example a female student with an econ major has an average SAT score of cell B5 in the picture while a male student also with an econ major has B6. Overall econ major students have an average SAT score of B7.
In general, female students have an average SAT score in this sample of For more information on pivot tables go to the following site.
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For graphing in excel we recommend the following links. Error bars. In the sample we have three majors: Econ, Math and Politics. The grades are the final grades for the entire academic year. Copy and paste both columns into a new sheet, sort by major Data — Sort, select the column for major and sort ascending separate by group. Final table should look like this.. By now you should be familiar with the summary statistics presented in the first table. The sum has decimals because some of the scores have decimals; they are just rounded to the nearest integer.
The analysis of variance requires the estimation of two variances: between groups econ, math and politics and the within groups students. Sum of square deviations. Degrees of freedom. For between groups is 2 number of majors minus 1 and for within groups is 27 number of students minus number of majors. Is a probability distribution. According to Kachigan , the F is the ratio of:. This is the value that answers your question.
We wanted to know whether there is some sort of relationship between majors and grades. ANOVA assumes by default that there is no relationship. As a general rule, a p-value greater than 0. We got a p-value of 0. Had the p-value been lower than 0. Check the table for 0. Here is a general overview on how some numbers were estimated. Follow the coordinates by columns and rows. Stata is a statistical package to help you perform data analysis, data manipulation and graphics.
To open Stata go to Start — Programs — Stata[ver. For cluster computers contact OIT for instructions. When you open Stata this is what you will see:. Here are some brief explanations. We recommend however, for most of the procedures, to use the command line. When you work with Stata there are three basic procedures you may want to do first: create a log file , set your working directory , and set the correct memory allocation for your data.
The log file records everything you type and get while working in Stata. Commands and output are send to a text file for you to review later. To create a log file go to File — Log - Begin. Select the working directory. In the results window you will something like. The second thing to check is your working directory. To do this in the command window type the following.
To see what is in that directory good old DOS command. For the purposes of this course we will work in the following directory. To change directory type in the command window. You can check your current directory by looking at the lower left of the Stata screen. The third initial step is to set the necessary memory allocation.
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This will be enough for a medium size database but sometimes you may need more memory space to store your dataset. To determine the size of your dataset follow the formula:. Depending on your Stata version and computer power, you can allocate up to around 2 gigabytes. To allocate 1 g you can type:.
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From Excel to Stata. To put Excel data to Stata you can simply copy-and-paste. A new window will pop-up, is the data editor window where you can input data or simply paste it. In Excel, select the whole table A1:N Press Ctrl-C. Numbers are always black. The variable window will be populated with all the variables in your data. In the command window type help format for details. The whole screen will look like this. Descriptive statistics. To start exploring the data you may want to know how many graduates and undergraduates are in the sample. For this type in the command window type help tab for more details :.
Click here to get the data. We have 15 undergrads and 15 grads.
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From what country? If you want to run frequencies for more than one variable at the same time use tab1 not tab. You should get something like this:. If you want do a crosstabulation you type:. This is. Archived from the original on 13 January Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved Categories : Comparisons of mathematical software Graphics software Infographics Lists of software Plotting software Statistical software Statistics-related lists. Hidden categories: Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from December Namespaces Article Talk.
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